The Securities Act of 1933 (“Securities Act”) Rule 144 sets forth certain requirements for the use of Section 4(1) for the resale of securities. Section 4(1) of the Securities Act provides an exemption for a transaction “by a person other than an issuer, underwriter, or dealer.” The terms “Issuer” and “dealer” have pretty straightforward meanings under the Securities Act, but the term “underwriter” does not. Rule 144 provides a safe harbor from the definition of “underwriter.” If all the requirements for Rule 144 are met, the seller will not be deemed an underwriter and the purchaser will receive unrestricted securities.
Although not set out in the statute, all transfer agents and Issuers, along with most clearing and brokerage firms, require an opinion of
One of the methods of going public is directly through a public offering. In today’s financial environment, many Issuers are choosing to self-underwrite their public offerings, commonly referred to as a Direct Public Offering (DPO). Management of companies considering a going public transaction have a desire to understand the required disclosures and content of a registration statement. This blog provides that information.
Pursuant to Section 5 of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (“Securities Act”), it is unlawful to “offer” or “sell” securities without a valid effective registration statement unless an exemption is available. Companies desiring to offer and sell securities to the public with the intention of creating a public market or going public must file with the SEC and provide prospective investors with a registration statement containing all material information concerning the company and the securities offered. Currently all domestic Issuers must use either form S-1 or S-3. Form S-3 is limited to larger filers with
As I’ve repeated many times in blogs in the past, all offers, offers to sell, sales and offers to buy securities must be either registered or exempted from registration under Section 5 of the Securities Act of 1933. Regulation S provides an exclusion from the Section 5 requirements for transactions that occur outside the United States. Both private and public securities offerings made outside the United States by U.S. Issuers are excluded from the registration requirements of Section 5 as long as all the requirements of Regulation S are met. Regulation S may also be relied upon by foreign issuers; however, this blog will concentrate on offerings by U.S. Issuers and affiliates.
An offshore transaction is one in which (i) the offer is not made to a person in the U.S.; and (ii) Either (a) at the time the buy order is originated the buyer is outside the U.S. or the seller reasonably believes the buyer is outside