ABA Journal’s 10th Annual Blawg 100
On October 7, 2014, the SEC published a release instituting proceedings to determine whether to approve FINRA’s request to delete the rules related to, and the operations of, the OTC Bulletin Board quotation service. On June 27, 2014, FINRA quietly filed a proposed rule change with the SEC seeking to adopt rules relating to the quotation requirements for OTC equity services and to delete the rules relating to the OTCBB and thus cease its operations. Although the rule filing was published in the Federal Register, it garnered no attention in the small cap marketplace. Only one comment letter, from OTC Market Group, Inc. (“OTC Markets”) (i.e., the entity that owns and operates the inter-dealer quotation system known by its OTC Pink, OTCQB and OTCQX quotation tiers) was submitted in response to the filing.
The OTCBB has become increasingly irrelevant in the OTC marketplace for years. In October 2010, I wrote a blog titled “Has the OTCBB been replaced by the OTCQX and OTCQB”; at the time and up until May 16, 2013, my opinion was “yes” with one caveat. Prior to May 16, 2013, the OTCBB was considered “an established market” but the OTCQB and OTCQX were not. On May 16, 2013, that caveat was removed (see the blog detailing the changes Here) In particular, on May 16, 2013, the SEC updated their Compliance and Disclosure Interpretations confirming that the OTCQB and OTCQX marketplaces are now considered public marketplaces for purposes of establishing a public market price when registering securities for resale in equity line financings.
Since that time, the OTCBB has been largely irrelevant, and worse, a cause of confusion in the OTC marketplace. The OTC market is comprised of publicly traded securities that are not listed on a national securities exchange. The trading platforms for OTC securities are referred to as “inter-dealer quotation systems.” Today there are two main inter-dealer quotation systems: (i) the OTC Markets comprised of OTCQX, OTCQB, and pinksheets (www.otcmarkets.com); and (ii) the FINRA owed OTCBB (www.otcbb.com). Many small cap participants believe that the OTC marketplace is comprised of a single marketplace, and are confused by the actual existence of two such marketplaces.
The regulatory framework related to inter-dealer quotation services and OTC securities in general is widely centered on ensuring compliance with Section 17B of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). Section 17B of the Exchange Act is the Securities Enforcement Remedies and Penny Stock Reform Act of 1990 (the “Penny Stock Act”). Although a complete discussion of the Penny Stock Act is beyond the scope of this blog, the goal of the Act is to ensure the widespread dissemination of reliable and accurate quotation information on penny stocks. Over time, the OTC Markets has become much more efficient in meeting the goals of the Penny Stock Act while at the same time, the OTCBB has become much less efficient at meeting those same goals.
As set forth in the SEC Release, “FINRA proposed to adopt rules: (1) governing the treatment of quotations in OTC equity securities by member inter-dealer quotation systems and addressing fair and non-discriminatory access to such systems; (2) requiring member inter-dealer quotation systems to provide FINRA with a written description of quotation-related data products offered and related pricing information, including fees, rebates, discounts and cross-product pricing incentives; (3) expanding the reporting requirements related to quotation information in OTC equity securities; and (4) deleting the Rule 6500 Series and related rules and thereby ceasing operation of the OTCBB.”
The FINRA rule release seeks to eliminate the OTCBB and impose governing regulations on the remaining inter-dealer quotation system—to wit, the OTC Markets comprised of the OTCQX, OTCQB, and pinksheets (www.otcmarkets.com).
Proposed Deletion of the OTCBB Related Rules and OTCBB Marketplace
FINRA is proposing to delete the FINRA Rule 6500 Series, which governs the operation of the OTCBB, and cease operation of the OTCBB. In its request, FINRA states that the level of transparency in OTC equity securities facilitated by the OTCBB has been declining significantly for years such that the amount of information widely available to investors relying on the OTCBB bid and offer data has become negligible. FINRA further expressed its belief that “the remaining OTCBB information being disseminated to investors is so incomplete as to be potentially misleading with respect to the current pricing in these securities.”
There are approximately 10,000 OTC equity securities quoted on the OTC Markets, of which less than 10% are duly quoted on the OTC Markets and OTCBB and fewer than twelve (yes, 12) are solely quoted on the OTCBB. Moreover, it is widely known in the industry that the technology used to facilitate quotation on the OTCBB is antiquated and unreliable such that broker-dealers are derisive of using the system. Accordingly, FINRA notes that the discontinuance of the OTCBB will not have an impact on issuers, investors or member firms. FINRA has also committed to take steps to ensure a smooth transition for those few issuers still using the OTCBB system, including by directly contacting these issuers and assisting with a transition to OTC Markets.
Finally, FINRA believes that the requirements related to the Penny Stock Act, and in particular widely disseminated information regarding penny stocks, better lay with the issuers, broker-dealers, and FINRA members (such as OTC Markets) rather than with FINRA itself, which is an SRO (self-regulatory organization). In other words, FINRA does not believe it needs to own and operate an inter-dealer quotation system. However, presumably to address the SEC concerns in this regard, if the availability of quotation information to investors significantly declines, FINRA has committed to revisit and, if necessary, file a proposed rule change to establish an SRO-operated inter-dealer quotation system (or other measure) to ensure that compliance with the Penny Stock Act is met.
In response to FINRA’s request to eliminate the OTCBB, the SEC received a single comment letter and it was from OTC Markets. Needless to say, OTC Markets strongly supports the proposal as well as the proposed amendments to Rule 6431 discussed below. OTC Markets welcomes the enhanced responsibility and regulations imposed upon it and FINRA’s oversight as a regulator, and it agreed with all aspects of FINRA’s proposals. OTC Markets stated that the discontinuation of FINRA’s OTCBB, together with FINRA’s expanded oversight of OTC Markets, would help eliminate investor and issuer confusion while promoting compliance with the Penny Stock Act.
OTC Markets points out that “FINRA’s OTCBB no longer provides broker-dealers with an effective service for pricing securities, and market participants will be better served by FINRA regulating Qualifying IQSs [inter-dealer quotation services] instead of expending resources trying to operate the OTCBB.”
The Proposed Regulatory Rule Changes Related to Inter-Dealer Quotation Systems
Pursuant to Section 15A of the Exchange Act, FINRA is tasked with adopting and implementing regulations designed “to produce fair and informative quotations, to prevent fictitious or misleading quotations, and to promote orderly procedures for collecting, distributing, and publishing quotations.” In that regard, FINRA has developed a regulatory framework including FINRA’s Rule 6400 series (Quoting and Trading in OTC Equity Securities) and Rule 5200 Series (Quotation and Trading Obligations and Practices) and the Rule 6500 series, governing the OTCBB. FINRA also owns and operates the OTCBB.
The current regulatory framework governs the FINRA member firm’s quotation activity and not the inter-dealer quotation service itself. That is, the current regulatory framework governs the broker-dealers/FINRA member firms’ activities in entering quotes on the inter-dealer quotation system, but does not impose rules or regulations on the inter-dealer quotation system itself.
For example, there are rules that require FINRA members to either file a Form 211 with FINRA including due diligence and disclosure on the company whose securities are being quoted, or be able to rely on another firm’s 211 filing (piggyback qualified) prior to initiating a quote; rules related to minimum bid price increments ($0.0001 for OTC equity securities priced under $1.00 and $.01 for those priced over $1.00); rules prohibiting cross-quotation; rules requiring the display of customer limit orders; and a requirement that any quoted bid or asked price represent a bona fide bid for or offer of such security (i.e., the “fictitious quotation” prohibition).
FINRA is now proposing to adopt rules that regulate the inter-dealer quotation service itself, which after elimination of the OTCBB will be comprised of the OTC Markets, including the OTCQX, OTCQB, and pinksheets.
Proposed Rule 6431 Amendment
FINRA is proposing to implement new regulations by amending Rule 6431 to require OTC Markets (or any inter-dealer quotation service) to: “(1) adopt and provide to FINRA written policies and procedures relating to the collection and dissemination of quotation information in OTC equity securities, (2) establish and provide to FINRA fair and non-discriminatory written standards for granting access to quoting and trading on its system, and (3) provide to FINRA for regulatory purposes a written description of each quotation-related data product offered by such member inter-dealer quotation system and related pricing information, including fees, rebates, discounts and cross-product pricing incentives.”
Rule 6431 (Recording of Quotation Information) was originally implemented in 2003 to provide FINRA with access to quotation information on the OTC marketplace. When implemented, FINRA member broker-dealers had the duty to independently report to FINRA when quoting on the OTC Markets, because at the time OTC Markets was not, in and of itself, a FINRA member. Since that time, OTC Markets has become a licensed ATS (Alternative Trading System) and FINRA member. The proposed Rule 6431 amendment includes an adjustment such that now OTC Markets will be required to provide the quotation information and the broker-dealer will not. In practice, OTC Markets has been submitting the information on behalf of member firms already, and the rule change will codify this practice and officially relieve the broker-dealer member firm from the obligation.
As the vast majority of securities quoted on the OTC markets are also penny stocks, the new rules will also bolster the Exchange Act requirements related to ensuring the availability and dissemination of reliable and accurate information on penny stocks.
(1) Written policies and procedures relating to the collection and dissemination of quotation information
The amended Rule 6431 would require OTC Markets (or any inter-dealer quotation service) to establish, maintain and enforce fair and reasonable written policies and procedures relating to the collection and dissemination of quotation information in OTC equity securities. Such policies and procedures must ensure that quotations received are treated fairly and consistently and include methods for prioritizing and displaying such quotations. In simple terms, if an investor enters a buy or sell order with a broker, or a market maker enters such buy or sell order for their own account, there must be systems in place to ensure that that order is treated fairly vis-a-vis competing buy and sell orders on behalf of other investors through other brokerage firms and market makers.
In that regard, under amended Rule 6431, the OTC Markets will be required to address its method for ranking quotations, including factors such as price, size, time, capacity and type of quotation and any other factors used or considered in ranking and displaying quotations. OTC Markets will also be required to provide FINRA with a copy of its written policies and procedures relating to the collection and dissemination of quotation information, and any material updates, modifications and revisions thereto, upon enactment of the Rule change and thereafter within five business days following the establishment or material change in such written policy or procedure.
(2) Written standards for granting access to quoting and trading on its system
The amended Rule 6431 would require OTC Markets to establish “fair and non-discriminatory written standards for granting access to quoting and trading on the system that do not unreasonably prohibit or limit any person in respect to access to services offered by such inter-dealer quotation system.” In addition, OTC Markets will be required to keep records of all grants of access and denials or limitations of access, including the reasons for denying or limiting access. OTC Markets must provide FINRA with a copy of these written standards upon enactment of the Rule change and thereafter within five business days following the establishment or material change in such written standards.
(3) Written description of each quotation-related data product and related pricing information
The amended Rule 6431 would require OTC Markets to prepare a written description of each quotation-related product offered and related pricing information, including fees, rebates, discounts and cross-product pricing incentives—for example, the listing requirements for the OTCQB including application and annual fees (see Here); the OTC Disclosure and News Service; and the various other products and services offered by OTC Markets. OTC Markets must provide FINRA with a copy of the written product descriptions upon enactment of the Rule change and thereafter within five business days following the establishment or material change in such products or pricing.
SEC Proceedings Related to Approval of the Proposals
The SEC has instituted proceedings to determine whether the proposed rule changes, including elimination of the OTCBB, should be approved. The SEC is requesting comments from interested persons in support or opposition to the change. The SEC notes that in considering the proposal, it must (i) determine whether the changes are “designed to prevent fraudulent and manipulative acts and practices, to promote just and equitable principles of trade, and, in general, to protect investors and the public interest”; (ii) the rules include provisions governing the form and content of quotations on the OTC marketplace; and (iii) whether the rules support the Penny Stock Act.
The SEC has opened a 21-day total period to submit comments and a 35-day total comment period including time for rebuttals to submitted comments.
First, like OTC Markets, I am proponent of the rule changes all around. The discontinuation of the OTCBB is a natural and necessary progression of the reality of the marketplace.
However, neither the legal publications by FINRA or the SEC nor the comment letter from OTC Markets address some basic market realities. That is, with the elimination of the OTCBB and the implementation of listing standards and fees associated with quotation on the OTCQB, a new regime has been established for OTC market securities. Penny Stock issuers that are subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act will no longer have the ability to achieve the turnkey credibility associated with not being a pinksheet.
Although pinksheets will now include a large class of entities that are subject to the Exchange Act reporting requirements, in order to achieve a level of credibility and prestige, such issuers will be required to meet the quotation standards and pay the fees associated with listing on the OTCQB or OTCQX. I wonder if issuers that do not meet the standards for the OTCQB will opt to cease being subject to the Exchange Act reporting requirements in a sort of acquiescence to the new regime – i.e., if we are going to be a pinksheet anyway, why report, resulting in an overall reduced level of disclosure in the OTC marketplace.
Laura Anthony, Esq.
Legal & Compliance, LLC
Corporate, Securities and Going Public Attorneys
Securities attorney Laura Anthony and her experienced legal team provides ongoing corporate counsel to small and mid-size private companies, OTC and exchange traded issuers as well as private companies going public on the NASDAQ, NYSE MKT or over-the-counter market, such as the OTCQB and OTCQX. For nearly two decades Legal & Compliance, LLC has served clients providing fast, personalized, cutting-edge legal service. The firm’s reputation and relationships provide invaluable resources to clients including introductions to investment bankers, broker dealers, institutional investors and other strategic alliances. The firm’s focus includes, but is not limited to, compliance with the Securities Act of 1933 offer sale and registration requirements, including private placement transactions under Regulation D and Regulation S and PIPE Transactions as well as registration statements on Forms S-1, S-8 and S-4; compliance with the reporting requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, including registration on Form 10, reporting on Forms 10-Q, 10-K and 8-K, and 14C Information and 14A Proxy Statements; Regulation A/A+ offerings; all forms of going public transactions; mergers and acquisitions including both reverse mergers and forward mergers, ; applications to and compliance with the corporate governance requirements of securities exchanges including NASDAQ and NYSE MKT; crowdfunding; corporate; and general contract and business transactions. Moreover, Ms. Anthony and her firm represents both target and acquiring companies in reverse mergers and forward mergers, including the preparation of transaction documents such as merger agreements, share exchange agreements, stock purchase agreements, asset purchase agreements and reorganization agreements. Ms. Anthony’s legal team prepares the necessary documentation and assists in completing the requirements of federal and state securities laws and SROs such as FINRA and DTC for 15c2-11 applications, corporate name changes, reverse and forward splits and changes of domicile. Ms. Anthony is also the author of SecuritiesLawBlog.com, the OTC Market’s top source for industry news, and the producer and host of LawCast.com, the securities law network. In addition to many other major metropolitan areas, the firm currently represents clients in New York, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, Miami, Boca Raton, West Palm Beach, Atlanta, Phoenix, Scottsdale, Charlotte, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Washington, D.C., Denver, Tampa, Detroit and Dallas.
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