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The 20% Rule – Private Placements

Nasdaq and the NYSE American both have rules requiring listed companies to receive shareholder approval prior to issuing twenty percent (20%) or more of the outstanding securities in a transaction other than a public offering at a price less than the Minimum Price, as defined in the rule. Nasdaq Rule 5635 sets forth the circumstances under which shareholder approval is required prior to an issuance of securities in connection with: (i) the acquisition of the stock or assets of another company (see HERE); (ii) equity-based compensation of officers, directors, employees or consultants (see HERE); (iii) a change of control (see HERE); and (iv) transactions other than public offerings. NYSE American Company Guide Sections 711, 712 a 713 have substantially similar provisions.

Nasdaq and the NYSE recently amended their rules related to issuances in a private placement to provide greater flexibility and certainty for companies to determine when a shareholder vote is necessary to approve a transaction that would result in the issuance of 20% or more of the outstanding common stock or 20% or more of outstanding voting power in a PIPE or similar private placement financing transaction. The amendments simplified the prior multi-part language and changed the pricing test trigger to create a new “Minimum Price.” For my blog on the Nasdaq amendment, see HERE. Although the NYSE American has not yet amended its rule to conform with the changes, I expect it will be forthcoming. In this blog, I will drill down further on the rule and its interpretive guidance.

As I’ve mentioned in each of the blogs in this series, many other Exchange Rules interplay with the 20% Rules; for example, the Exchanges generally require a Listing of Additional Securities (LAS) form submittal at least 15 days prior to the issuance of securities in the same transactions that require shareholder approval. Companies need to carefully comply with each of the rules that may interplay with a transaction or proposed transaction.

Nasdaq Rule 5635(d)

Nasdaq Rule 5635(d) requires shareholder approval prior to a 20% issuance of securities at a price that is less than the Minimum Price in a transaction other than a public offering. A 20% issuance is a transaction, other than a public offering, involving the sale, issuance or potential issuance by the company of common stock (or securities convertible into or exercisable for common stock), which alone or together with sales by officers, directors or substantial shareholders of the company, equals 20% or more of the common stock or 20% or more of the voting power outstanding before the issuance. “Minimum Price” means a price that is the lower of: (i) the closing price (as reflected on Nasdaq.com) immediately preceding the signing of the binding agreement; or (ii) the average closing price of the common stock (as reflected on Nasdaq.com) for the five trading days immediately preceding the signing of the binding agreement.

The September 2018 rule amendment creating a new “Minimum Price” standard provides more flexibility by adding the option of choosing between the closing bid price and the five-day average closing price. For example, in a declining market, the five-day average closing price will be above the current market price, which could make it difficult for companies to close transactions because investors could buy shares at a lower price in the market. Likewise, in a rising market, the five-day average could result in a below-market transaction triggering shareholder approval requirements.

NYSE American Company Guide Section 713

The NYSE American Company Guide Section 732 requires shareholder approval prior to the listing of additional shares in connection with a transaction, other than a public offering, involving: (i) the sale, issuance, or potential issuance by the company of common stock (or securities convertible into common stock) at a price less than the greater of book or market value which together with sales by officers, directors or principal shareholders of the company equals 20% or more of presently outstanding common stock; or (ii) the sale, issuance, or potential issuance by the issuer of common stock (or securities convertible into common stock) equal to 20% or more of presently outstanding stock for less than the greater of book or market value of the stock.

Interpretation and Guidance

Public Offering

Although the rules do not require shareholder approval for a transaction involving “a public offering,” the Exchanges do not automatically consider all registered offerings as public offerings.

Generally, all firm commitment underwritten securities offerings registered with the SEC will be considered public offerings. Likewise, any other securities offering which is registered with the SEC and which is publicly disclosed and distributed in the same general manner and extent as a firm commitment underwritten securities offering will be considered a public offering for purposes of the 20% Rule. In other instances, when analyzing whether a registered offering is a “public offering,” the Exchanges will consider: (a) the type of offering (including whether underwritten, on a best efforts basis with a placement agent, or self-directed by the company); (b) the manner in which the offering is marketed (including the number of investors and breadth of marketing effort); (c) the extent of distribution of the offering (including the number of investors and prior relationship with the company); (d) the offering price (at market or a discount); and (e) the extent to which the company controls the offering and its distribution.

A registered direct offering will not be assumed to be public and will be reviewed using the same factors listed above. Likewise, a Rule 144A offering will be considered on its facts and circumstances, though generally share caps are used in these transactions to avoid an issue.  On the other hand, a confidentially marketed public offering (CMPO) is a firm commitment underwritten offering and, as such, will be considered a public offering.

                Substantial Shareholder

A substantial shareholder is defined in the negative and requires the company to consider the power that a particular shareholder asserts over the company.  Nasdaq specifically provides that someone that owns less than 5% of the shares of the outstanding common stock or voting power would not be considered a substantial shareholder for purposes of the Rules.

                Shares to be Issued in a Transaction; Shares Outstanding; Votes to Approve

In determining the number of shares to be issued in a transaction, the maximum potential shares that could be issued, regardless of contingencies, should be included. The maximum potential issuance includes all securities initially issued or potentially issuable or potentially exercisable or convertible into shares of common stock as a result of the transaction. The percentage to be issued is calculated by dividing the maximum potential issuance by the number of shares of common stock issued and outstanding prior to the transaction.

In determining the number of shares outstanding immediately prior to a transaction, only shares that are actually outstanding should be counted.  Shares reserved for issuance upon conversion of securities or exercise of options or warrants are not considered outstanding for the purpose of the 20% Rule. Where a company has multiple classes of common stock, all classes are counted in the amount outstanding, even if one or more classes do not trade on the Exchange.

Voting power outstanding as used in the Rule refers to the aggregate number of votes which may be cast by holders of those securities outstanding which entitle the holders to vote generally on all matters submitted to the company’s security holders for a vote.

Where shareholder approval is required under the 20% Rule, approval can be had by a majority of the votes cast on the proposal. The proxy for approval of a transaction under the 20% Rule should provide specific details on the proposed financing transaction.

Convertible Securities; Warrants; Anti-Dilution Provisions

Convertible securities and warrants can either convert at a fixed or variable rate. If the securities are convertible at a fixed price, Nasdaq will determine whether the issuance is below the Minimum Price, and for the NYSE American at a price less than the greater of book or market value, if the conversion or exercise price is less than the applicable threshold price at the time the parties enter into a binding agreement with respect to the issuance.

Variable rate conversions are generally tied to the market price of the underlying common stock and accordingly, the number of securities that could be issued upon conversion will float with the price of the common stock. That is, the lower the price of a company’s common stock, the more shares that could be issued and conversely, the higher the price, the fewer shares that could be issued. Variable priced convertible securities tend to cause a downward pressure on the price of common stock, resulting in additional dilution and even more common stock issued in each subsequent conversion round. This chain of convert, sell, price reduction, and convert into more securities, sell, further price reduction and resulting dilution is sometimes referred to as a “death spiral.”

The 20% Rule requires that the company consider the largest number of shares that could be issued in a transaction when determining whether shareholder approval is required.  Where a transaction involves variable priced convertible securities, and no floor on such conversion price is included or cap on the total number of shares that could be issued, the Exchanges will presume that the potential issuance will exceed 20% and that shareholder approval will be required.

The calculation of whether an issuance is above 20% and below the threshold Minimum Price where warrants are involved can be complicated.  Where warrants are involved, Nasdaq will require shareholder approval if the issuance of common stock is less than the 20% threshold and such stock is issued below the Minimum Price if the exercise of the warrants would result in greater than a 20% issuance.  However, the warrants do not need to be included in the calculation if the exercise price is above the Minimum Price and the warrants are not exercisable for at least six months.  If the common stock portion of an offering that includes warrants exceeds the 20% threshold, Nasdaq will value the warrants at $0.125, regardless of whether the exercise price exceeds the market value. This is referred to as the “1/8th Test.” In this case, shareholder approval will be required even if the warrants are not exercisable for six months.

However, Nasdaq has indicated that convertible bonds with flexible settlement provisions (i.e., cash or stock at the company’s option) will be treated the same way as physically settled bonds under the rule. If the conversion price of the bonds equals or exceeds the Minimum Price, shareholder approval will not be required. Contrarily, Nasdaq will treat a convertible security with a flexible settlement provision as if it will be settled in securities for purposes of the 20% Rule.

Moreover, the Exchanges generally view variable priced transactions without floors or share caps as disreputable and potentially raising public interest concerns. Nasdaq specifically addresses these transactions, and the potential public interest concern, in its rules. In addition to the demonstrable business purpose of the transaction, other factors that Nasdaq staff will consider in determining whether a transaction raises public interest concerns include: (1) the amount raised in the transaction relative to the company’s existing capital structure; (2) the dilutive effect of the transaction on the existing holders of common stock; (3) the risk undertaken by the variable priced security investor; (4) the relationship between the variable priced security investor and the company; (5) whether the transaction was preceded by other similar transactions; and (6) whether the transaction is consistent with the just and equitable principles of trade.

Nasdaq will closely examine any transaction that includes warrants that are exercisable for little or no consideration (i.e., “penny warrants”) and may object to a transaction involving penny warrants even if shareholder approval would not otherwise be required.  Warrants with a cashless exercise feature are also not favored by the Exchanges and will be closely reviewed.  Nasdaq guidance indicates it will review the following factors related to warrants with cashless exercise features: (i) the business purpose of the transaction; (ii) the amount to be raised (if the acquisition includes a capital raise); (iii) the existing capital structure; (iv) the potential dilutive effect on existing shareholders; (v) the risk undertaken by the new investors; (vi) the relationship between the company and the investors; (vii) whether the transaction was preceded by similar transactions; (viii) whether the transaction is “just and equitable”; and (ix) whether the warrant has provisions limiting potential dilution.  In practice, many warrants include dilutive share caps and have cashless features that only kick in if there is no effective registration statement in place for the underlying common stock.

Any contractual provisions that could result in lowering the transaction price to below the Minimum Price, including anti-dilution provisions, most favored nations, true-up and similar provisions will be viewed as a discounted issuance. Likewise, a provision that allows a company to voluntarily reduce the conversion or exercise price to a price that could be below the Minimum Price, will be treated as a discounted issuance.


Both Nasdaq and the NYSE American may aggregate financing transactions that occur within close proximity of each other in determining whether the 20% Rule applies. Nasdaq considers the following factors when considering aggregation: (i) timing of the issuances; (ii) facts surrounding the subsequent transactions (e.g., planned at time of first transaction); (iii) commonality of investors; (iv) existence of contingencies between the transactions; (v) commonalities as to use of proceeds; and (vi) timing of board approvals. Moreover, transactions that are more than six months apart are generally not aggregated. Although the NYSE American does not provide such specific guidance, in practice, their analysis is substantially similar.

Two-Step Transactions and Share Caps

As obtaining shareholder approval can be a lengthy process, companies sometimes bifurcate transactions into two steps and use share caps as part of a transaction structure. A company may limit the first part of a transaction to 19.9% of the outstanding securities and then, if and when shareholder approval is obtained, issue additional securities. Companies may also structure transactions such that issuances related to a private offering, including through convertible securities, are capped at no more than 19.9% of total outstanding.

In order for a cap to satisfy the rules, it must be clear that no more than the threshold amount (19.9%) of securities outstanding immediately prior to the transaction, can be issued in relation to that transaction, under any circumstances, without shareholder approval. In a two-step transaction where shareholder approval is deferred, shares that are issued or issuable under the cap must not be entitled to vote to approve the remainder of the transaction.  In addition, a cap must apply for the life of the transaction, unless shareholder approval is obtained. For example, caps that no longer apply if a company is not listed on Nasdaq are not permissible under the Rule.  If shareholder approval is not obtained, then the investor will not be able to acquire 20% or more of the common stock or voting power outstanding before the transaction. Where convertible securities were issued, the shareholder would continue to hold the balance of the original security in its unconverted form.

Moreover, where a two-step transaction is utilized, the transaction terms cannot change as a result of obtaining, or not obtaining, shareholder approval. For example, a transaction may not provide for a sweetener or penalty. The Exchanges believe that the presence of alternative outcomes have a coercive effect on the shareholder vote and thus deprive the shareholders of their ability to freely determine whether the transaction should be approved. Nasdaq provides specific examples of a defective share cap, such as where a company issues a convertible preferred stock or debt instrument that provides for conversions of up to 20% of the total shares outstanding with any further conversions subject to shareholder approval. However, the terms of the instrument provide that if shareholders reject the transaction, the coupon or conversion ratio will increase or the company will be penalized by a specified monetary payment, including a rescission of the transaction. Likewise, a transaction may provide for improved terms if shareholder approval is obtained. The NYSE American similarly provides that share caps cannot be used in a way that could be coercive in a shareholder vote.

Reverse Acquisitions

A reverse acquisition or reverse merger is one in which the acquisition results in a change of control of the public company such that the target company shareholders control the public company following the closing of the transaction. In addition to the 20% Rule, a change of control would require shareholder approval under the Change of Control Rule and the Acquisition Rule will likely apply as well. A company must re-submit an initial listing application in connection with a transaction where the target and new control entity was a non-Exchange listed entity prior to the transaction.

In determining whether a change of control has occurred, the Exchange will consider all relevant factors including, but not limited to, changes in the management, board of directors, voting power, ownership, nature of the business, relative size of the entities, and financial structure of the company.


The Exchanges have a “financial viability” exception to the 20% Rule. Although rarely granted, to qualify for the financial viability exception, a listed company must apply in writing and demonstrate that: (i) the delay in securing stockholder approval would seriously jeopardize the financial viability of the company; and (ii) reliance on the exception has been expressly approved by the company’s audit committee or comparable board committee comprised of all independent, disinterested directors. A determination will be rendered by the Exchange very quickly, such as in a matter of days.

Nasdaq guidance suggests an in-depth letter focusing on how a delay resulting from seeking shareholder approval would seriously jeopardize its financial viability and how the transaction would benefit the company. The letter should also describe the proposed transaction in detail and should include the identity of the investors. Nasdaq provides a list of examples of information that should be discussed in the letter, including: (i) the facts and circumstances that led to the company’s predicament; (ii) how long the company will be able to meet its current obligations, such as payroll, lease payments, and debt service, if it does not complete the proposed transaction; (iii) the company’s current and projected cash position and burn rate; (iv) other alternatives; (v) why a step transaction will not work; (vi) would the company file for bankruptcy without the transaction; (vii) the impact to operations while waiting for shareholder approval; (viii) why the company didn’t enter into a transaction sooner; (ix) demonstrate that the transaction will rescue the company; (x) demonstrate that the company will continue to meet Nasdaq’s listing requirements; and (xi) explain changes in voting power.

A company that gets approval for this exception must send a mailing to all shareholders at least 10 days prior to the issuance of securities under the exception. The letter must disclose the terms of the transaction, including number of shares to be issued and consideration received, that the company is relying on the financial viability exception and that the audit committee (or other committee) has approved the reliance on the exception. The company must also file an 8-K and issue a press release with the same information also no later than 10 days before the issuance.

Furthermore, shareholder approval is not required if the issuance is part of a court-approved reorganization under the federal bankruptcy laws or comparable foreign laws.

Also, a foreign private issuer that has elected to follow its home country rules will be exempt from the 20% Rule if it notifies Nasdaq, provides an opinion from local counsel that shareholder approval would not be required, and discloses its practices in its annual report on Form 20-F.

Consequences for Violation

Consequences for the violation of the 20% Rule or Acquisition Rule can be severe, including delisting from the Exchange.  Companies that are delisted from an Exchange as a result of a violation of these rules are rarely ever re-listed.

The Author

The Author
Laura Anthony, Esq.
Founding Partner
Anthony L.G., PLLC
A Corporate Law Firm

Securities attorney Laura Anthony and her experienced legal team provide ongoing corporate counsel to small and mid-size private companies, OTC and exchange traded public companies as well as private companies going public on the Nasdaq, NYSE American or over-the-counter market, such as the OTCQB and OTCQX. For more than two decades Anthony L.G., PLLC has served clients providing fast, personalized, cutting-edge legal service. The firm’s reputation and relationships provide invaluable resources to clients including introductions to investment bankers, broker-dealers, institutional investors and other strategic alliances. The firm’s focus includes, but is not limited to, compliance with the Securities Act of 1933 offer sale and registration requirements, including private placement transactions under Regulation D and Regulation S and PIPE Transactions, securities token offerings and initial coin offerings, Regulation A/A+ offerings, as well as registration statements on Forms S-1, S-3, S-8 and merger registrations on Form S-4; compliance with the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, including registration on Form 10, reporting on Forms 10-Q, 10-K and 8-K, and 14C Information and 14A Proxy Statements; all forms of going public transactions; mergers and acquisitions including both reverse mergers and forward mergers; applications to and compliance with the corporate governance requirements of securities exchanges including Nasdaq and NYSE American; general corporate; and general contract and business transactions. Ms. Anthony and her firm represent both target and acquiring companies in merger and acquisition transactions, including the preparation of transaction documents such as merger agreements, share exchange agreements, stock purchase agreements, asset purchase agreements and reorganization agreements. The ALG legal team assists Pubcos in complying with the requirements of federal and state securities laws and SROs such as FINRA for 15c2-11 applications, corporate name changes, reverse and forward splits and changes of domicile. Ms. Anthony is also the author of SecuritiesLawBlog.com, the small-cap and middle market’s top source for industry news, and the producer and host of LawCast.com, Corporate Finance in Focus. In addition to many other major metropolitan areas, the firm currently represents clients in New York, Los Angeles, Miami, Boca Raton, West Palm Beach, Atlanta, Phoenix, Scottsdale, Charlotte, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Washington, D.C., Denver, Tampa, Detroit and Dallas.

Ms. Anthony is a member of various professional organizations including the Crowdfunding Professional Association (CfPA), Palm Beach County Bar Association, the Florida Bar Association, the American Bar Association and the ABA committees on Federal Securities Regulations and Private Equity and Venture Capital. She is a supporter of several community charities including sitting on the board of directors of the American Red Cross for Palm Beach and Martin Counties, and providing financial support to the Susan Komen Foundation, Opportunity, Inc., New Hope Charities, the Society of the Four Arts, the Norton Museum of Art, Palm Beach County Zoo Society, the Kravis Center for the Performing Arts and several others. She is also a financial and hands-on supporter of Palm Beach Day Academy, one of Palm Beach’s oldest and most respected educational institutions. She currently resides in Palm Beach with her husband and daughter.

Ms. Anthony is an honors graduate from Florida State University College of Law and has been practicing law since 1993.

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